1.8. Automobile chemicals, oils and lubricants
The set of the chemicals, oils and lubricants necessary goes on sale during performing procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs. Here the wide range of products of the chemical and oil-extracting industry - from the cleaning structures and solvents, to oils, lubricants and aerosols for protection of rubber and plastic components of the car enters.
The cleaner for systems of injection and air gates represents strong solvent of pitches, deposit and coal deposits. The most part of cleaners leaves behind the greasing film of dry type which does not harden and does not zasmalivatsya eventually. In view of formation of such film these cleaners are not recommended to be used for washing of electric components.
The cleaner for brake systems is applied to removal of traces of lubricant and brake fluid from surfaces of components of the brake system where absolute purity is a paramount condition of efficiency of functioning. The cleaner does not leave any marks and in many cases eliminates the squeal of brake mechanisms caused by pollution of their components.
The cleaner for electric components promotes elimination of oxide films, traces of corrosion and a deposit from contact surfaces without conductivity violation. Also it can be used for cleaning of spark plugs, jets, regulators of tension and other knots where full cleaning of oil and fat is desirable.
Moisture absorbers serve for removal of water and moisture from surfaces of such electric components as the generator, tension regulator, assembly block of safety locks, electric sockets, etc. of Vlagopoglotiteli usually do not carry electric current, do not cause corrosion and are not flammable.
Degreasers represent superstrong solvents and serve for removal of traces of lubricant from the external surfaces of the engine and components of the chassis. Are issued in the form of aerosols or are put with a brush or a brush and, depending on type, wash off or, or solvent.
Motive oils represent specially developed structures for lubricant of internal components of the engine. Usually contain different wide range of the additives serving for prevention of foaming and corrosion. Motive oils are produced various degree of viscosity - from 5 to 80. Need of use of oil of this or that grade usually is defined by climatic conditions and requirements of the concrete engine. Liquid (lungs) oils are usually applied in a frigid climate and at insignificant loads of the engine. Heavy (viscous) oils are used in hot conditions and at the raised loads of the engine. All-weather oils possess characteristics of both light, and heavy oils and usually have designations from 5W-20 to 20W-50.
Qualities of motive oils
All-weather oils are rather inexpensive oils with the following qualities:
- Year-round use in zones of a temperate climate;
- The excellent washing properties;
- The good greasing ability at all temperatures and loadings of the engine;
- High stability of initial properties for a long time.
All-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities have, besides, additional advantages:
- Year-round use in the wide range of temperature of external air;
- Small losses of engine capacity on friction;
- Simplification of cold start of the engine – even at very low temperatures.
When using all-weather SAE 5W-30 oils it is necessary to avoid long operation of the engine with high frequency of rotation and constant big load of the engine. These restrictions do not belong to all-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities.
Seasonal oils owing to specific viscous and temperature properties inherent in them usually cannot be used all the year round, they should be applied only in extreme climatic zones.
Use of additives and mixing of oils
It is not necessary to add any additives to motive oils reducing losses on friction.
It is impossible to mix motive oils, unfortunately, even if it oils of firms "with a world name" (Shell, Mobil, British Petroleum). Each firm by production of oils adds the whole complex of additives which chemical composition is kept a secret to their basis. Therefore there are a lot of qualitative oils of identical appointment meeting the requirements of the API specifications (Institute of oil of the USA) of and ACEA (The European association of designers of cars), but made on technologies of various firms when mixing are capable to create mixes of poor quality owing to interaction and mutually destruction of additives, that is their "incompatibility". Oils of different firms are interchanged, about a possibility of use of such oils developers of engines often specify. But it does not mean that they can be mixed. The API and ACEA specifications assume obligatory identical test methods (laboratory, bench – motive, etc.) oils of different firms. At desire (or need) of developers can enter additional tests (or more severe conditions). The same treats mixing of mineral or synthetic oils (sometimes even one firm).
To mix oils of foreign and domestic production, especially those which are made with additive of "domestic" additives it is not allowed in a last resort. Neither the seller, nor the consumer know composition of additives which are in oils. Some oils of "a domestic origin" are produced by the "firms" which do not have even elementary knowledge of oil products. Sometimes such "experts" use the fulfilled oils (even without appropriate regeneration) to production of "commodity". At the same time and corresponding quality.
To try to reduce oil waste in the old engine and to raise a compression in cylinders due to use of high-viscous oils it is inexpedient as it will lead only to temporary improvement. Further repair of the engine will be more expensive.
It is necessary to take for the rule to use the high-quality oil of one brand corresponding to the engine (according to the specification) of and not to risk to mix it with same synthetic (or semi-synthetic) oil. The engine will thank for it reliable work. Do not buy oil privately as it is easy to forge packing.
Gearbox oil is developed for application in differentials, transmissions, and other knots where resistance to influence of high temperatures is required.
Lubricant for components of the chassis and bearings of wheels represents the dense lubricant applied in the knots subject to the raised loadings and friction, such as bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, tips of steering drafts and cardan hinges.
High-temperature lubricant for bearings of wheels is capable to resist to influence of the high temperatures arising in bearings of wheels of the cars equipped with disk brake mechanisms. Usually it is lubricant with the maintenance of MoS2.
White lubricant (tsiaty) represents the dense lubricant applied on the metal surfaces contacting among themselves in places where there are problems with the increased moistening. Remains soft both at low, and at high temperatures, it is not washed away and not diluted by water.
Assembly lubricant is applied in the conditions of high pressures, usually contains molybdenum and is used for greasing of the knots subject to the raised loadings (such as radical and conrod bearings and working ledges of cams) before the first start of the engine after capital repairs.
Silicone lubricants are applied to protection of rubber, plastic, vinyl and nylon components.
Graphite lubricants serve for application where oil cannot be used in view of problems with pollution (for example, in locks). Dry graphite perfectly greases metal details, preventing influence on them of moisture, acids and other aggressive pollution. Lubricant is electrowire and does not break contact in such knots as, for example, ignition lock.
The Molibdensoderzhashchy getting structures are applied to simplification of an otdavaniye of the "stuck" fixture, and also to greasing of fixture in order to avoid its corrosion in the future.
Heat-conducting lubricant is not electrowire and serves for installation of electronic modules of ignition from which intensive heat removal is required.
RTV sealant is the most widely applied pro-masonry sealant. It is made on the basis of silicon, stiffens on air, provides sealing, gluing, is waterproof, fills defects of surfaces, remains elastic, does not contract and does not sit down, it acts rather easily and applied in addition practically to all laying on knots where temperatures do not exceed average values.
Anaerobic sealant, unlike RTV sealant, can be applied not only in addition to laying, but also to formation of those. It remains elastic, is steady against influence of solvents and well fills roughnesses of surfaces. The main difference from RTV sealant consists in hardening conditions. If RTV sealant begins to stiffen after hit on air, then anaerobic sealant rises only in lack of air. It means that hardening of such sealant happens only after assembly of components and their dense pressing to each other.
Sealant to pipes and threaded connections is applied to sealing of nipple connections of hydraulic, pneumatic and vacuum lines. It is usually made on the basis of a teflon compound and delivered in the form of aerosols, film (FUM) of or the liquids applied like paint.
The anti-taking compound serves for the prevention of "prikipaniye", corrosion, jamming and a cold privarivaniye of fixture. The high-temperature anti-taking sealants usually are made on the basis of cupriferous or graphite lubricants and used in fixture of system of production of the fulfilled gases and a final collector.
The anaerobic taking compounds serve for prevention of a spontaneous otdavaniye of fixture as a result of vibrations and stiffen only after installation in lack of contact with air. The taking compounds of average power are applied to fixing of small fixture which is subject to a regular otdavaniye. High-power compounds are usually used for blocking of large fixture which otdavaniye is not made on a regular basis.
Additives to oil serve for change of chemical properties of oil without change of its viscosity for the purpose of decrease in internal friction in the engine. It is necessary to notice that any additives to them do not recommend to use most the firms manufacturers producing engine oils.
Additives to fuel perform several functions, depending on the chemical composition at once. Usually contain the solvents promoting a conclusion of slags and removal of a deposit from internal surfaces and components of system of injection of fuel and an inlet path. Besides, use of such additives promotes removal of the coal deposits which are formed on walls of combustion chambers. The substances serving for greasing of components of the top part of a head of cylinders (valvate mechanism, piston rings) are a part of some additives, others promote removal of condensate from walls of the fuel tank.
Brake fluid represents specially developed structure capable to resist to influence of the high temperatures and pressure arising in the brake system. It is not necessary to allow contact of brake fluid with the painted surfaces of the car and open parts of the body. Brake fluid is poisonous. You keep brake fluid in hermetically closed container in order to avoid hit of moisture in it (liquid is very hygroscopic) and dirt. During operation of the car brake fluid takes away a certain amount of water from air that can lead to emergence of corrosion of details of the working brake system. Besides, at the same time temperature of boiling of brake fluid significantly goes down, doing more possible formation of vials of steam at big load of the brake system and, therefore, probability of refusal of brakes increases. Therefore it is necessary to change brake fluid once a year. Apply the brake fluid satisfying to specifications of the car.
Glue for fastening of sealing strips of body apertures as it is clear from its name, serves for fastening of sealing strips of apertures of doors, windows and covers of luggage compartments. It can be applied to fixing of elements of internal finishing.
The anticorrosive covering for the bottom of the car represents the gudronoobrazny structure made on an oil basis and serves for a sheeting of metal surfaces, preventing their corrosion. Besides, performs function of sound insulation of salon.
Wax and polish are applied to protection of the painted surfaces against influences of the environment. Uses of various type of vosk and polishes can demand various type of paint. The abrasive or chemical additives serving for removal of an external layer of oxides (tarnishing) from the painted surfaces of old cars are a part of some polishes. Recently different polishes which are not containing wax which part the set of chemical additives, such as polymers or substances on a silicon basis is are widely presented at the market. Such polishes are put and keep longer than usual (wax) usually easier.