1.5. Technology of service, tool and equipment of a workplace
Technology of service
There are several techniques of performing procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader can find references in the text of this manual. Following will make by it work as more effective, will allow to organize in the best way a workplace and to qualitatively perform various technical procedures.
Fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and screws serving for connection of two or more details. During the work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any fixture this or that type of the kontryashchy and fixing devices is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or the fixing compound for a carving. All used carving fixture has to be absolutely pure and equal, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take obligatory replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts with new for the rule. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to reuse as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties.
The rusted bolts and nuts for simplification of their otdavaniye and in order to avoid their damage should be processed the special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use turpentine which is convenient for putting from a special small canister with a long nose for this purpose. After wetting of the "stuck" fixture by the getting structure before starting its otdavaniye, to structure it is necessary to give to impregnate the oxidized contact layer within several minutes. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, to cut a hacksaw or to remove by means of a special gaykolom.
Threaded connections which are exposed to big differences of temperatures (for example, EGR valve, lambda probe, final collector) tend to a privarivaniye that complicates dismantle at the following service. For simplification of an otdavaniye of such fixture grease it before tightening by Molycote 1000 30 20 971 or Never Seize lubricant.
When cutting a head of a bolt or oblamyvaniya of a hairpin on assembly, rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of the special tool. Most metalwork and auto repair shops can undertake performance by this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the stripped thread in carving openings), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assembly should be established always into place in the same order and the same way, as earlier. Always replace the damaged washers new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example, aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic it is always necessary to establish flat washers.
For many reasons manufacturers of cars use metric fixture more and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between the SAE standard fixture used sometimes (called by also American) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts as SAE standard, and metric, are classified by diameter, step of a carving and length. For example, bolt of SAE 1/2-13x1 has half-inch in the diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. The metric bolt of M12-1.75x25 has diameter of 12 mm, step of a carving of 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are externally almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs bolts can be identified by survey of their head. The distance between lyska of a head of a metric bolt is measured in mm whereas at a SAE standard bolt - in inches (the same is fair also for nuts). As a result, wrench according to the SAE standard does not suit for use with metric fixture and vice versa.
Sizes/marking of a class of durability of the SAE and USS standards
Sizes/marking of a class of durability of metric bolts
Besides, on heads of the most part of bolts of the SAE standard usually there are radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, are higher admissible effort (on cars bolts with degree of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code which is usually cast on a bolt head.
Marking of a class of durability of bolts (above - standard/SAE/USS, below - metric)
Also on tags of a class of durability of a nut of the SAE standard it is possible to distinguish from metric. Dot tags, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of besides figures are applied to identification of durability of nuts of the SAE standard. The quantity of points are more, or the value of a digital code is higher, admissible effort of tightening of a nut is higher.
Marking of a class of durability of six-sided nuts of the SAE standard
Indentifikation of a class
Indentifikation of a class
Marking of a class of durability of metric six-sided nuts
Indentifikation of a class
Indentifikation of a class
End faces of metric hairpins are also marked according to a class of their durability. Large hairpins are marked by a digital code whereas marking in the form of a geometrical figure is applied on smaller.
Marking of a class of durability of metric hairpins
It is necessary to notice that a considerable part of fixture, in particular the class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of fixture of the SAE standard from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or comparison of a carving with reference.
As fixture of the same geometrical size can have various classes of durability, when replacing on the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to compliance of a class of durability of the installed new fixture to a class of durability of old.
Procedure and order of tightening of threaded connections
Tightening of the most part of threaded connections should be made with the efforts determined by requirements of the Specifications provided in the beginning of each chapter of this manual (it is necessary to understand the torque enclosed to it when tightening as effort of tightening of fixture). Tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye leads to unreliability of connection of the interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on their material and diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of tightening, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are given in Specifications at the beginning of each chapter. For tightening of fixture which is not mentioned in Specifications it is necessary to use the map of the admissible moments of rotation given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) of fixture in a steel or cast (not aluminum) detail is made.
Efforts of tightening of metric carvings
|| 9 — 12 N • m
|| 19 — 28 N • m
|| 38 — 54 N • m
|| 68 — 96 N • m
|| 109 — 154 N • m
Efforts of tightening of pipe carvings
|| 7 — 10 N • m
|| 17 — 24 N • m
|| 30 — 44 N • m
|| 34 — 47 N • m
Efforts of tightening of carvings of the SAE and USS standards
|1/4 — 20
|| 9 — 12 N • m
|5/16 — 18
|| 17 — 24 N • m
|5/16 — 24
|| 19 — 27 N • m
|3/8 — 16
|| 30 — 43 N • m
|3/8 — 24
|| 37 — 51 N • m
|7/16 — 24
|| 55 — 74 N • m
|7/16 — 20
|| 55 — 81 N • m
|1/2 — 13
|| 75 — 108 N • m
Fixture located on perimeter of any detail (such as bolts of fastening of a head of cylinders, pallet of a case and various covers), in order to avoid deformation of a detail it is necessary to give and drag on in strictly certain order described in the corresponding heads of the Management. If this order is not stipulated, then in order to avoid a curvature of a component it is necessary to adhere to the procedure described below. At the first stage tighten all bolts or nuts by hand. Then in turn hold on each element of fixture on one whole revolution, and transition from one bolt/nut to another has to be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat the procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue to act in the same manner, tightening each bolt/nut this time already on a quarter of a turn for one approach until all of them are not tightened with the required effort. At fixture otdavaniye it is also necessary to adhere to the described procedure, but working upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at assembly each detail could be established on its former place and the correct image. Remember characteristics of appearance, in case of need you make landing marking of details which installation can be into place made ambiguously (persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft belongs to such elements, for example). The arrangement of the removed details on a pure surface in that order in which their removal was made will be the good idea. Useful will be also a drawing up the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography subject to dismantling or removal of a component.
At removal of fixture try to mark its initial situation on assembly. Often immediate installation of fixture and washers on the former place after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such opportunity, all fixture should be put in the box which is specially prepared for this purpose, broken into the marked sections, or just on the separate marked capacities. Such line of action is especially useful during the work with the components consisting of a set of fine details such as generator, valvate mechanism, dashboard or elements of a decorative covering of salon.
At separation of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to mark separate wires or plaits of an electrical wiring by means of an insulating tape with the digital or alphabetic code applied on it.
On all cars of laying are applied to sealing of the place of a joint of the interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leak of oils and liquids and maintenance in assembly of elevated pressure or depression.
Usually such laying before installation is required to be covered with a liquid or pastelike sealing compound. Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" to each other of the interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes an exigeant task. Dismantling of such knots is helped by their obstukivaniye outside on perimeter of the place of a joint the Hummer with soft brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well the ordinary Hummer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and fragile components. At emergence of such difficulties always first of all check whether all fixture is removed. Try not to use the screw-driver or mount to division of details, entering them between the interfaced surfaces them at the same time it is easy to damage that can be further the cause of leaks. If the podrychazhivaniye of the "stuck" elements of assembly cannot be avoided, use for this purpose the wooden handle from old wit, but do not forget to remove at the same time carefully from the interfaced surfaces and from within assembly all formed chips.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed out carefully, having scratched out from them material of old laying. The hardened fragments of old laying can be softened previously by means of rust solvent or the special chemical composition, and then to remove with a scraper. As a scraper in this case the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end can be used. Use for this purpose of copper tube is recommended as copper is usually softer than the materials applied in the car that reduces risk of damage of the interfaced surface. Some laying can easily be removed by means of a copper brush, however, it is not dependent on the applied method, interfaced surfaces have to become absolutely pure and smooth. If for any reason the interfaced surface was scratched, before assembly of components fill scratch with pro-masonry sealant. In most cases it is necessary to use the noncongealable or semi-stiffening sealant.
Councils for removal of hoses
Do not disconnect from components of the air conditioning system (K/V) any hoses until the system is not discharged by the expert of a workshop of car service.
Precautionary measures which should be observed at removal of hoses are very close to those at removal of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes which hoses as it can be the cause of leaks are put on. In a special measure it belongs to the procedure of removal of hoses of the cooling system. Owing to various chemical reactions occurs "prikipany" rubbers of hoses to the interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For removal of a hose first of all weaken a collar of its fastening on the union. Then nippers with the sliding hinge grasp a hose near a collar and begin to rotate it on the union or a branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue this procedure before liberation of a hose, then remove a hose from the union. A small amount of silicone or other lubricant will facilitate the procedure if it can be entered into a gap between the union and a hose. For simplification of the procedure of installation of a hose grease an internal surface of a hose and the external surface of the union.
As the last resort, or in case of unambiguous need of replacement of a hose, for removal from the union of the end of a hose it is possible to knife it. At the same time try not to damage a knife metal of the union or a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a collar of fastening of a hose replace a collar. Collars of the twisted type usually weaken eventually therefore, regardless of their state, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
The choice of the good tool is one of the main requirements for everyone who plans independent performing procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight the expenses connected with acquisition of the required set of tools can seem too big, however at their comparison with the expenses interfaced to performing procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs on HUNDRED will be quite reasonable.
Lists of three tool kits are given below. The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works should begin with performing procedures, tools limited to application from the first list, improving at the same time the skills and gradually expanding the range of the used tool. In process of acquisition of experience it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, supplementing the held tool kit. After a while the received skills will allow to start performance of more complex works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and capital repairs of the car). When qualification begins to allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list given below includes a minimum necessary for performing procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches is recommended (from ordinary Rozhkova a head on one end and from cap on another). Despite the big cost of such set in comparison with the cost of set of ordinary Rozhkov of keys, expense will be justified since these keys have advantages of both types.
- Set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
- Adjustable spanner (to 35 mm)
- Candle key with a rubber insert (petrol models)
- The tool for adjustment of a candle gap (petrol models)
- Set of measuring probes
- Nippelny key for pumping of brakes
- With a flat sting (100 mm at 6 mm long in the diameter)
- With a cross sting (100 mm at 6 mm long in the diameter)
- The combined flat-nose pliers
- Hacksaw with a set of cloths
- The manometer for measurement of pressure in tires
- Lubricant gun (syringe)
- Canister under oil
- Fine-grained emery paper
- Wire brush
- The tool for cleaning of plugs and contacts of wires of the battery
- Key for removal of an oil filter
- Funnel (average size)
- Props for fixing of the car in the lifted state (2)
- Drain capacity
Tool kit for the general and capital repairs of the car
The listed below tool will be required when carrying out repair of the engine of the car and offered in addition to the first list. This list includes a complete set of replaceable face heads. At the considerable cost, a set of replaceable heads brings invaluable benefit, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, - in particular in combination with the drives which are included in the package of various type. It is recommended to use preferably drives with a section of 1/2 inches (but not 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dynamometer keys (ideally, good mechanic has to have both types of drives at the order). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is a set of tubular keys.
- Set of replaceable face heads (including heads like "Torx") or tubular keys, sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
- The ratchet reversive drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
- Collar 250 mm long
- The cardan drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
- Dynamometer key (with the drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
- Самоконтрящиеся nippers
- The Hummer with round brisk (about 230 g)
- The Hummer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber)
- With a flat sting (length of 150 mm and with a diameter about 6.5 mm)
- With a flat sting (strong mm No. 2, 8)
- With a cross sting (mm No. 3, 203)
- With a cross sting (strong No. 2)
- Clamping pincers
- Flat-nose pliers:
- For electricians (with the isolated handles)
- Uzkonosy (nippers)
- For lock rings (internal and external)
- Chisel on 25 mm
- The scraper (made from the copper tube which is flattened out and pointed since one end)
- Skrayber (chertilka)
- Center punch
- Small beards with a thin sting (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
- Set of hose clips
- Set for pumping of brakes
- The set verified
- Steel line/measuring instrument of planeness
- Set of prutkovy keys hexagons (for heads with an internal hexagon)
- Set of files
- Wire brush (big)
- Second set of props
- Jack (hydraulic or foot type)
One more constantly required tool is the electric drill with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set qualitative verified.
The tools which are adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding when using implementation of instructions of manufacturers of these tools are included in this list. If frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations does not fall within the scope of your activity, acquisition of such tool will be bad investment of capital. It is reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire in workshops of car service.
Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on representative offices of firms are entered in the list. Sometimes in the text of the Management it is possible to find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case it is impossible to avoid use of the special tool, and its acquisition in use is problematic, performance of the corresponding works is better to entrust experts HUNDRED.
- The tool for compression of valvate springs
- The tool for grinding in of valves
- Device for a clearing of flutes of piston rings
- The tool for a staving of piston rings
- The tool for installation of piston rings
- The measuring instrument of extent of compression of gases in cylinders (компрессиометр)
- Vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
- Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders
- Measuring instrument of diameter of cylinders
- Micrometer and/or dial caliper
- The tool for centering of a clutch plate
- Stripper of spherical support
- Stripper of universal type
- Impact driver
- Set of the dial measuring instrument
- Stroboscope (with the inductive sensor)
- The manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
- Set of taps and lerok
- The tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker
- Universal tester for electric measurements
- Lifting rigging
- The tool for removal/installation of brake springs
- Telezhny jack
Acquisition of the tool
By preparation for holding procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to buy the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of broad works to buy more simply, more reliably and more economically a set of the modern tool to which the toolbox is usually applied. Further, for choice expansion, it is possible to buy in addition separate tools, additional sets and a toolbox of the bigger size. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in the choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the only source of acquisition of some special tools, but, irrespective of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at the choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as the term of their service for certain will be short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will be incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is valuable investment of capital therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After use of the tool before putting it to the place of storage, always carefully clear it of dirt, lubricant and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered in a workplace. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car for existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc. tool comb fixed in the convenient place on a garage wall is ideal. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The measuring tool has to be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of working surfaces of the tool. A shock part quickly of the Hummer in the course of work is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose sharpening of the stings over time. You do not stint to find a little time for removal of rasklep and arrangement of the cutting edges by means of an emery paper or a file. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve during very long term.
If carrying out more serious work, than simple routine maintenance is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable working platform. The important requirement is existence of a roof or awning.
Whenever possible, any procedures of dismantling should be made on a pure flat workbench (table) of convenient height equipped with a vice. Existence of a vice with soft overlays for the sponges revealing to 100 mm is sufficient.
As it was already mentioned above, on the working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant liquids, cleaners, hard putties, paints and varnishes, etc. has to be equipped.
As absolutely necessary tool is the electric drill, therefore, working platform has to be equipped with the power supply for its connection.
At last, in a workplace always there has to be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure неворсящейся rags, intended for cleaning of the working platform, tool and details of the car.
Never you perform any works on the open painted surface of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.